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お知らせ(更新情報) : 多角的自己表現法とは(英語)
投稿者: webmin 投稿日時: 2005-1-1 1:28:00 (18831 ヒット)



The New Psycho Therapy Tokumaru Method


The Tokumaru method is a multi-faceted psychotherapy for both psychological assessment and treatment by which Japanese youths as well as those people all over the world who normally find verbal expression very difficult, learn to express themselves through means other than speaking. By employing this method, the process to establish rapport with a therapist may be strengthened in a short time without undue psychological stress and individuals eventually become capable of self disclosure in spoken words.


To introduce verbal psychotherapy that has been developed in the western world to Japan where self-suppression, rather than self-expression, is encouraged as part of the ethos, one has to be aware that the procedure will be associated with some painful experience for the client. For the client who has been raised in a society where one's psychological problems are not to be talked about openly but kept from others, encouraging catharsis through verbal self-revelation based on the western concept will be totally unacceptable no matter how hard he wishes to escape from his mental anguish. Starting at an early elementary school age, Japanese youngsters have been obliged to follow passively their teacher's instructions: perseverance has been encouraged by all means and one's own opinion or divergence from the prevailing practice has been suppressed in the name of group harmony. It is totally unreasonable to ignore this background and expect catharsis in young clients who are at a delicate and highly sensitive age to verbalize their very serious and yet private mental anguish.


In the problem of bullying, one can anticipate that the victim will face an adverse interpersonal relationship with a sense of guilt and fear of retaliation that may be a consequence of reporting the incident to the authorities. Furthermore, his self respect may be threatened when he tells all to his parents or teachers; and they in turn not only discover the bullying incident but also learn the social isolation in which the victim finds himself (of which he is not so proud). These situations drive the victim from revealing the predicament in which he finds himself; the door to a direct solution to the problem is forever closed; and the youth in anguish remains isolated. Thus the situation continues to become more complex and serious. Ideally, all bullying incidents should be eradicated from socially interacting youths; but in parallel with establishing a service that handles reports on bullying, it may be necessary to construct a system that will assist the victims to overcome adversity on their own by giving due consideration to their psychological processes that tend to shut out others.


A study of the Tokumaru method describes the desirable results brought to the psychological process of bullying victims, although the bullying problem itself may remain unresolved. The method has also been proven to be successful in bringing relief to a child who had suffered from domestic violence (DV) at an early age and held ambivalent feelings toward his parents. It should be added that the method was also found to be useful for adults who earnestly desired to understand the dramatic psychological changes and visual observation of the recovery process.


In the Tokumaru method, the therapist first gains the “client's empathy” by his own self-disclosures. In doing so, it is necessary to be careful not to force the therapist's own value judgments on his client. It was proven that the client who was shown a model by the therapist gains hope for his own future; and through this empathic experience, he starts the way to recovery from his psychiatric turmoil. The client can organize his thoughts by sublimation, direct confrontation, and objective evaluation of the internal problems hitherto held within as a personal secret through a process of self-expression on his own without being forced externally. Next, going over the process of reciting what the client has written, he is led in a short time to a level at which he is capable of expressing his own thoughts directly in spoken words. This process, which normally requires several hours, is conducted by the therapist with a group or a single client. If the process is to be continued, the therapist selects a theme based on the client's response and disclose this to maintain lively communication.


This psychotherapy is intended to be used both for assessment and treatment: some of the conventional psychotherapies are intended to be used beyond the norm of mere psychological assessment (as in the “miniature garden” method) but lead to therapy through the assessment. For a psychological assessment, it is necessary that the client express himself in some form, for which the process of sublimation is utilized. In the Tokumaru method, the process in which the current negative emotions are expressed is succeeded by one in which an ideal state is presented: the pair of these dichotomous processes is repeated by varied methods to lead the client into gaining the capacity for self-healing. As a rule, art therapy does not play a role of assessment but contrary to this conventional concept, the significance of the Tokumaru method is that the therapist and client share the results of assessment and therapy; and together they gain confidence by visually confirming the desirable end results.


The approach to expression adopted by the Tokumaru method does not require any specific props: any motivated therapist can conduct it without much delay. However, like most methods, there is room for improvement to accommodate social changes in future. It is necessary to retain flexibility to meet the needs associated with a society that incorporates IT and undergoes rapid transition (e.g., by incorporating timely topics and items). It is emphasized that sufficient consideration be given to various conditions; improvements will be added; and the results will be reported in the future.

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